UABR Article Archive

  • 2011 Volume 13 Issue 1
  • 2010 Volume 12 Issue 1
    • Trade Aid by Patricia (Trish) Corner, Marcus Ho

      Geoff White contemplated issues that were all in a day’s work for him: a global economy spiralling into serious recession, competitive challenges for the fair trade dollar, and a balancing act between commercial business principles and social mission. White considered expanding Christchurch-based Trade Aid into Australia and restructuring company ownership to give its economically disadvantaged trading partners a stake in the company, despite these issues. Can Trade Aid’s global leadership in social value creation be continued despite the expected dramatic drop in retail spending?

    • Privacy and the Spam Act by Alexandra Sims

      Online competitions are a cheap and useful tool for businesses to gain information about potential customers. Organisations using online competitions, however, must comply with a number of legal requirements; two such requirements are the Privacy Act 1993 and the Unsolicited Electronic Messages Act 2007 (the Spam Act). In a study conducted in 2009, 40 competitions were analysed for their compliance with these Acts. Th e results of the study demonstrate considerable non-compliance as well as some misunderstanding of the requirements of these Acts. Th is article, in addition to explaining the law, provides best practice guidelines for organisations running such competitions.

  • 2009 Volume 11 Issue 1
    • India by Swati Nagar and Peter Enderwick

      The growing Indian economy holds huge opportunity for New Zealand business, both as a market and a low-cost production base. There are several key sectors where India’s pressing needs can be met by New Zealand’s distinct competitive advantages. To realise this opportunity for increased international business, New Zealand firms need to find market entry modes that balance resource commitment and risk with the need for control and appropriation.

    • Advising New Zealand’s Family Businesses by Helen Nicholson, Deborah Shepherd and Christine Woods

      The foundations of New Zealand’s business landscape are built on successful family businesses such as the Todd Corporation, Fletcher Building, Quality Bakers, Barfoot and Thompson, Resene Paints, Sleepyhead, Michael Hill Jeweller, and Corban Wines, to name a few. Considering the decades that these businesses span, it is safe to say that family businesses are by no means a recent phenomenon. However, family business consultation and academic research is1. This lack of specialised focus is surprising considering that family businesses dominate the global economic scene, comprising approximately 70% of businesses worldwide and 60% of New Zealand firms.

    • Sustainable development by Christine Byrch, Kate Kearins, Markus J. Milne and Richard K. Morgan

      Sustainable development means very different things to different people. But the diverse definitions and understandings of the term among the business community and business sustainability advisors may surprise even the most seasoned of sustainability advocates. This diversity of understanding does bring with it some dangers. As sustainable development rapidly goes mainstream in New Zealand, promoters of the concept to business should be concerned that it does not become so variously and loosely defined and ‘practised’ as to be meaningless. That said, a greater knowledge of sustainable development, and its many perspectives, will strengthen the sustainable development movement, protecting it, for example, from the fraudulent claims of businesses that purport to practice sustainable development, while in fact pursuing unsustainable practices.

    • Value investing using price earnings ratio in New Zealand by Cameron Truong

      The value investing approach has been adopted by some highly successful investors. This research finds that a consistently superior return can be achieved from value investing in low Price-to-Earnings stocks. This cannot be explained by conventional risk measures and may indicate a mispricing phenomenon in the New Zealand market.

  • 2008 Volume 10 Issue 2
    • Opportunities for New Zealand tourism companies in Chile by Barney Irvine and Christina Stringer

      With a growing Chile-New Zealand economic relationship, the Chilean tourism market offers some attractive opportunities to New Zealand companies. This study finds several operators who believe that experience in New Zealand can give them a competitive advantage in this market.

    • Macpac gears up and gets out there by Maureen Benson-Rea and Deb Shepherd

      Bruce McIntyre, founder of this iconic NZ company, has weathered many challenges: a turbulent marketplace; a reluctant move off-shore; rapidly changing consumer demand. A unique culture and a focus on design have proven critical for survival. But who will take Macpac on to its next chapter?

    • A global view of supply chain management by Darilyn Kane

      According to Dr. Douglas Lambert, Supply Chain Management goes way beyond logistics and transport – it is about building the right relationships and extending the boundaries of the organisation to partner with customer and supplier networks.

    • Trade Associations by Martin Perry

      Trade Associations are well established but have remained low profile despite growing interest in business networks. A recent study found many associations to be very active, making valuable contributions to members, industry and public good.

    • Te Warewhare by Janet Sayers, Will Low and Eileen Davenport

      The impact of “big-box” retail on small communities is widely thought to be negative. This research finds a complex and often positive relationship that is influenced by ethnic and historical contexts.

    • Aspiring to lead by Lester Levy and Brigid Carroll

      Recent New Zealand based research reveals new dynamics between management and leadership and offers promise for new thinking and innovation in terms of leadership development and organisational performance.

  • 2008 Volume 10 Issue 1
    • The auditors’ dilemma by Michael Keenan

      The New Zealand Accounting profession has a history of ineffective strategies for addressing its auditors’ “liability crisis”. This article resolves a dilemma that has prevented the adoption of disclaimers of liability, and advocates their use as an effective strategy with benefits for both the profession and the public.

    • The New Zealand Sock Company by David Rees and Marie Wilson

      Over four generations, the Sparrow family have grown the oldest privately owned fashion retailer in the Southern Hemisphere into a successful entrepreneurial business. The journey has involved meeting the challenges of a changing marketplace and balancing the promise of opportunity with the weight of responsibility.

    • Time and Tide by Brian M. Harmer and David J. Pauleen

      The widespread adoption of personal productivity technologies has blurred the boundaries between work and private life. Laptops, mobile communications devices and networks have become ubiquitous but their effect on our work and lives have not been broadly explored. Research on the use and impact of these technologies identifies some important organisational and personal management issues and offers some guidelines for managing “any time, any place” employees.

    • Unlocking strategic minds by Kevin Morris

      Preparing high-potential managers to make the leap to the Executive team is a challenge for most organizations. As the desire for leadership depth and strategic thinking intensifies globally, the need for clear development pathways and visible commitment to people development becomes even more imperative. Kevin Morris offers some frameworks for understanding the mindset that can take managers to the next level, and the development environment that executive teams should strive to create.

    • When art meets science by Bruce Farr

      Since Bruce Farr started designing yachts in the late 1960’s the industry has seen a great deal of change. He reflects on how changes in technology continue to reshape the boating industry, the challenges of growing an organization, and the role of competition and cooperation in the design community. Whilst he misses aspects of the “old days”, he predicts a future with an even greater focus on technology.

    • Explore

      ‘No 8 Wire’ for today’s world, the biology of success, and an entrepreneur’s journey.

    • Business Models and Design Strategy by David Rees and Marie Wilson

      Product design is recognised as one way in which small scale local manufacturers can compete against imports produced in countries with lower costs structures and less demanding regulatory frameworks. However, true strategic advantage can be gained by applying the concept of design more broadly across a business. Research with furniture manufacturers explores the impact of design interventions on business performance.

  • 2007 Volume 9 Issue 2
  • 2007 Volume 9 Issue 1
  • 2006 Volume 8 Issue 2
    • Claire French

      The 2006 MacDiarmid Young Scientist of the Year.

    • Managing the new global threats by Peter Enderwick

      Terrorism, global diseases and computer viruses are just some of the new types of threats that are emerging in the global business environment. Pete Enderwick suggests a focus on strategy rather than risk management might be the most effective way to deal with these.

    • Aligning CRM rewards with corporate goals

      The future of customer relationship management will be based on new metrics and reward structures that align sales representatives' effort with corporate goals.

    • Not-for-profit management systems by Jens Mueller, Julie Rickman and Ngamau Wichman-Tou

      A systematic approach to demonstrating accountability may help NPOs meet the increasing demands of both donors and government. Here, a evaluation potential tool is presented and discussed.

    • Closing the deal

      In his role as a corporate legal adviser, Andrew Harmos is a keen observer of the Kiwi business psyche. In this interview, he talks about his industry and shares his concerns about foreign ownership and levels of saving.

    • Stability and change for sustainability by Noel Burchell and Darl Kolb

      Understanding how an organisation's appetite for stability and change matches its environment may be the key to finding the sustainability zone - the balance that will enable the organisation to survive and thrive.

    • Three professors on leadership

      As part of the inaugural New Zealand Leadership Week, three scholars debated the meaning of contemporary leadership, and the challenge of developing leaders. This is an edited version of the debate.

    • Big deal by Steve Todd

      The transition to reporting business combinations under NZ IFRS should not be too traumatic, but the longer term prospect of converging standards could mean fundamental changes in how control is defined and which entities should be consolidated.

    • Emerging trends in Accounting, Communication and Leadership

      Trends and emerging issues in business and research.

  • 2006 Volume 8 Issue 1
  • 2005 Volume 7 Issue 2
  • 2005 Volume 7 Issue 1
    • The Face of Leadership by Lester Levy

      Brian Blake, the CEO of DB Breweries, shares his thoughts about leading a corporation in the modern age. Among other things, he says, it is about creating a culture where people can realise their full potential and where that potential can be harnessed to achieve the company's vision.

    • Changing the world on a shoestring: the concept of social entrepreneurship by Dave Roberts and Christine Woods

      Social entrepreneurship is at an exciting stage of academic infancy, and the challenge for is to turn a practitioner-led pursuit into a more rigorous and objective discipline. The first step is building a simple definition that creates focus and increases understanding.

    • Beyond the Boardroom by Darilyn Kane

      After 33 years with BP, the global energy company, New Zealander John Buchanan recently retired from his role as CFO. He reflects on leading global change, his experience as a non-executive director of several global companies, and the impact of increased regulation on corporate governance.

    • International transfer pricing practices in New Zealand by Jian Li

      The issue of transfer pricing has long been a source of managerial concern and frustration for multinational corporations, and has led to a variety of approaches to being adopted. In this article, the methods chosen by firms in New Zealand and their reasons are reviewed.

    • The rise of the new export economy: What does it mean? by Roger Bowden

      The new century ushers in a NZ economy that is already looking a lot different from the old. Substantial broadening of the income generation base via the export services sector has diversified international exposures and spread risks through time. But what are the other implications?

    • Shifting to IFRS by Michael Bradbury and Tony van Zijl

      The Accounting Standards Review Board's decision to adopt IFRS has significant impact on financial reporting standards. This article reviews the implications, and briefly considers the transition to full application of IFRS in 2007.

    • Learning to Grow a Business by Jana Matthews

      Visiting professor Jana Matthews has visited New Zealand frequently since 1982, and works with business owners and managers to build understanding about sustainable growth companies. She shares the insights from her research in the U.S., and reviews the programmes she is developing locally.

    • Nexus6

      ICEHOUSE-based Nexus6 and its asthma management system

    • Explore by Lesley Springall

      Sparking start-ups: Business plan competition bridges the divide between academia and commerce. Otago OIL: building businesses the Otago way. Promises, promises: It's one thing to promise great value, and another thing to deliver. Coding the future: Digital enterprise centre adds new dimension to technological know-how. Befitting the bottom line: Study puts to rest 30 years debate on the economic benefits of social responsibility.

    • Social responsibility and financial performance: Trade-off or virtuous circle? by Marc Orlitzky

      Researcher Marc Orlitzky reviews his award-winning research on the relationship between corporate social initiatives and the bottom line. New Zealand companies have been slow to adopt triple bottom line reporting. So are they missing out on strategic opportunities?

    • The corporate shield: What happens to directors when companies fail? by Susan Watson and Chris Noonan

      When companies crash into liquidation they often leave behind a string of disgruntled unsecured creditors—who often assume that limited liability means that there is little prospect of recovery from those who operate the company. However, directors may sometimes be made responsible for losses suffered.

  • 2004 Volume 6 Issue 2
    • Brain Drain to Talent Flow by Kerr Inkson, Stuart Carr, Margot Edwards, Jill Hooks, Duncan Jackson, Kaye Thorn and Nicola Allfree

      A significant number of New Zealanders never return home from their OE, chasing the opportunities offered by larger economies. Researchers from Massey University initiated a programme to understand more about the motivations of individuals who move in and out of the country. Their initial research, presented in this article, explored why a sample of 2,200 New Zealanders are currently choosing to stay abroad.

    • Foreign Direct Investment to New Zealand by Joanna Scott-Kennel

      As the number of foreign-owned enterprises increases in New Zealand, what are the implications for the economy? Researchers have investigated the phenomenon from two perspectives: the parent-affiliate relationship, and how international companies ultimately impact local industries.

    • Getting serious about voluntary environmental programmes by Eva Collins, Particia Corner, Kate Kearins and Stewart Lawrence

      Voluntary Environmental Programmes (VEPs) are activities that businesses undertake, beyond what's legally mandated, to improve their environmental performance. This research provides a local and international context for the development of VEPs, and offers suggestions for companies that are serious about having more than simply a clean-green image.

    • Auditor Independence by Jeff Cheung and David Hay

      In a post-Enron world, the policies for auditors are increasingly being dissected. The NZX has changed its listing requirements, and The Institute of Chartered Accountants (ICANZ) has held an inquiry into the issue. Very little seems to be known about the shareholder perspective. This survey presents new insights about the differing viewpoints of auditors, directors, and shareholders.

    • Andrew Ferrier on Fonterra's Future by Andrew Ferrier

      In a speech he presented for the University of Auckland Business School, the CEO of Fonterra outlined the company’s changing circumstances and strategic direction. The company has global market power, but will it be hindered or helped by its co-operative governance model?

    • Global Ambitions by Ian McCrae

      Having taken Orion Systems from ground zero to its status as an international provider of healthcare IT systems, Ian McCrae reflects on the company’s decade of growth, the lessons learned, and his aspirations for the future.

    • How to build an Innovation System by Peter Lee

      People in every business contribute valuable ideas, but how many inspirations are successfully commercialised? According to Peter Lee, a robust development system requires rigorous discipline and a market-oriented perspective. In this article, he outlines his experiences and some innovation fundamentals.

    • Explore: Future-proofing the fishing industry

      New Zealand's seafood industry plays an increasingly vital role in the economy. In addition to supporting 26,000 jobs throughout the country, exports have tripled in the past 20 years from around $500 million to $1.4 billion, with the industry forecasting growth to reach $2 billion by 2010. "A large part of this increase in value", explains Dr. ManukaHenare, "can be attributed to innovative value-added products and processes, including the development and rapid expansion of new aquaculture activities". Henare, Associate Dean for Maori & Pacific Development at the University of Auckland Business School and Director of the Mira Szászy Research Centre for Maori & Pacific Economic Development, is managing a research project to understand how innovation and growth occurs in the seafood sector.

    • Explore: Innovation through Collaboration

      Steve Barnett, based at the University of Auckland's Tamaki campus, is a Senior Tutor in the Bachelor of Business Information Management (BBIM). He's also actively involved in a scheme that will provide a range of businesses with a home at the campus. "The key", he says, "is establishing collaborative relationships, firstly across our disciplines but also with companies and industries". These on-site industry partnerships will create clusters for identifying and launching research projects.

    • Explore: The pursuit of IT talent

      With the aim of building connections between the university and the corporate sector, a long-running course in the University of Auckland Business School's Department of Information Systems and Operations Management (ISOM) has connected hundreds of students with industry. The course, which was pioneered in 1986 by Associate Professor Dr. Lech Janczewski, is now called Information Systems Project INFOSYS 340, and involves students in an intensive companyoriented IT-related project.

    • Explore: Golden Opportunities with the Dragon

      The recent Gateway to China Trade Summit presented a forum to learn more about the business opportunities with China, a rapidly developing nation of 1.3 billion consumers. The conference was further recognition of China's status as a free market economy, and was hosted by several organisations, including the Auckland Chamber of Commerce and the New Zealand Asia Institute (NZAI). The forum brought together a multitude of political, diplomatic and business experts.

    • Explore: Headstart for young scientists

      Biowiz, a wide-ranging initiative to develop entrepreneurs and scientists in the biotechnology industry, provides school and university students with early opportunities to experience the industry. Funded by the Enterprise Skills and Culture Activities Funds of New Zealand Trade and Enterprise, Biowiz was established to ensure the country develops skilled leaders in the ever-changing fi elds of bio-sciences and bio-technologies.

    • Explore: Management skills for SMEs

      Research to develop a framework for building management capability in SMEs (small and medium enterprises) in New Zealand is underway. The project is being conducted for the Ministry of Economic Development through the SME Research Centre at Massey University, Wellington. Dr Marie Wilson, Associate Professor in the Department of Management & Employment Relations at the University of Auckland Business School, is involved in the project and sees it as critical to learning more about the local context for management.

    • Explore: The leaders of tomorrow

      The New Zealand Leadership Institute, a national initiative to enhance the understanding of leadership and ensure the country has talented and skilled leaders, is currently developing a Future Leaders Programme. The 18-month programme will be focused on developing the leadership potential of young leaders, and it will take a holistic approach to leadership development. The participants build an awareness of themselves as leaders, how they relate to others and how they behave as leaders within different contexts. The multifaceted programme will incorporate diverse learning experiences including capability assessment, reflective practice, group activities, forums with established leaders, the discussion of theory, and active projects in the community. In addition to face-to-face workshops, there will be virtual forums and self-directed learning. The programme challenges each participant to create development initiatives specific to them, within the supportive environment provided by the Institute.

  • 2004 Volume 6 Issue 1
    • Do the NZSE Listing Rules Destroy Value? by Megan Goldfinch

      On October 29, 2003, the New Zealand Stock Exchange implemented changes to its listing rules regarding corporate governance regulation. It is now mandatory for listed companies to have a minimum of two independent directors on the board or to ensure that independent directors make up one-third of the board, whichever is greater. These changes are part of a global reform of corporate governance regulation that has taken place as a result of the recent financial scandals that have rocked the United States economy.

    • The Call For Leadership by Lester Levy

      The speed of change in business is fast, too fast and getting faster. You know this; you feel the turbulence. Global interconnectedness, ubiquitous information, changing workforce dynamics and attitudes, moral and ethical issues and the rising importance of social capital have brought about a new and intensified period of change. This change is unrelenting, resulting in a prevalent concern about a lack of leadership to overcome this challenge. In this context, it is important not to reinforce the tempting notion that leadership is a romantic simplicity. There will be no dramatic arrival of an apocryphal knight on a white horse to rescue any business from its leadership predicament. Leadership is complex and if we are to develop more effective leadership in business, then we need to take the time to reflect on and understand leadership.

    • Building Effective Board-management relationships by Ljiljana Erakovic and Sanjay Goel

      The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of the relationships between boards and management in New Zealand. The paper is part of a larger study that considers corporate governance practice in two different types of industries: traditional and hi-tech. Here we present our findings from companies that belong to traditional industries. We place particular emphasis on the internal workings and dynamics of the boards in these industries, thereby moving beyond the structural debate about ?gwho should be on the board??h We believe this addresses the question of ?ghow should boards govern the corporations??h by looking directly at their functional contribution. In addition, this charges the board with the central responsibility of governing the corporation, and managers with managing it.

    • Will Real Estate Agents Survive? by Michael D. Myers and Kevin Crowston

      Will real estate agents find that their jobs are slowly, but surely, taken over by systems and services provided on the internet? While information technology has yet to make much impact on the real estate industry, we suggest a fundamental transformation is just around the corner. How will the real estate industry be transformed by the ever-increasing power of information technology? Will real estate agents find that their jobs are slowly, but surely, taken over by systems and services provided on the internet? Or will they find that the power of IT enables them to do their job even more effectively?

    • Copyright and Fair Use in the Digital Age by Louise Longdin

      Authors are also increasingly aware that new technologies may infringe their moral rights since it is easy to misattribute or not attribute digital works and subject them to derogatory treatment.

    • Organic Food and the Activist Mother by Jenny Wong

      The proliferation of organic foodstuffs within the food industry has received worldwide attention. However, detailed research that explores why consumers purchase organic food is still lacking. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of this study, both academic and managerial.

  • 2003 Volume 5 Issue 2
  • 2003 Volume 5 Issue 1
    • Carrying on Business in New Zealand by Michael Chin

      “The genius of the common law derives from its capacity to adapt the principles of past decisions, by analogical reasoning, to the resolution of entirely new and unforeseen problems. When the new problem is as novel, complex and global as that presented by the internet in this appeal, a greater sense of legal imagination may be required than is ordinarily called for. Yet the question remains whether it can be provided, conformably with established law and with the limited functions of a court under the Australian constitution to develop and re-express the law.”

    • Back from the Brink by Mark Colgate, Vicky Nguyen and Christina Lee

      Why do some customers carefully contemplate leaving their service providers ?Esuch as doctors, banks, internet service providers ?Ebut then decide to stay? This occurrence could be compared with marriage. Often people stay in a marriage even though they have considered (many) alternatives. These people may be deeply unhappy or simply feel the need to break free from a relationship where they feel constrained. The same is often true in business relationships; sometimes customers stay with companies even though they feel they may be better off elsewhere. This article looks at why New Zealanders stay with their service providers, even though they have seriously considered switching. We undertook 24 in-depth interviews and then surveyed more than 340 consumers to discover these reasons and their importance. This research investigates why these potential switchers stay. What makes a customer step back from the brink and which of these “staying?Ereasons are the most important ?Ethese are the questions that drive this research. Ultimately, what we want to know is why don’t customers file for divorce?

    • Tapping our Entrepreneurial Heritage by Ian Hunter and Marie Wilson

      Recent reports from government and from local economic development organisations, such as the Auckland Regional Economic Development Strategy group, have highlighted decreasing economic performance in New Zealand. Businesses are urged to become more innovative and ambitious and to grow dynamic firms that will lift the country's export performance and provide challenging, rewarding jobs to stop the flow of talent from our shores (AREDS, 2002; Glass and Choy, 2001).

    • The Silent Revolution by Tom Marshall

      A revolution has occurred in primary health care and general practice in New Zealand over the past decade. This revolution has been possible because of the direction various governments have taken as they have sought to improve the health of New Zealanders by making structural changes to the nation’s health care system. At the same time, there has been an acceptance by health care policy-makers that general practice and primary health care delivery are pivotal in an effective health care system. The revolution has taken place because general practitioners have accepted and risen to the challenge presented by these circumstances.

    • The Big OE by Barbara Myers and Kerr Inkson

      How it works and what it can do for New Zealand In a post-Bali essay on terrorist threats to the international “backpacker culture?E American journalist Michael Elliott recalls his younger days: “More than 30 years ago, I discovered Europe by hitchhiking around it each summer, sleeping on beaches and in cheap hostels, breezing into Barcelona on the back of a motorbike, watching French kids in Nimes cover the table with the ingredients of a fresh ratatouille, selling my blood in a clinic off Omonia Square in Athens for $8 ?Eenough for a few more days on the islands. I learned more from these trips than from years in school.?E(Elliott, 2002, p.27). So Elliot learned more wandering around Europe in the holidays than he did at college, did he? That should put a few professors in their place!

    • A Provisional "Thumbs Up" to New Zealand Bank Call Centres by Janet Sayers, Andrew Barney, Carole Page and Kogi Naidoo

      Call centres have been called the factories of the future?E but this perception is challenged by recent research involving three large New Zealand bank call centres and conducted in the Department of Management and International Business at Massey University in Albany. Most importantly, the thumbs up?Efor the call centres has come from staff ?Ecustomer service representatives (CSRs), who are at the forefront of the banks?Eservice-delivery strategies. Staff also have provisos, however, and bank managers can learn a lot from listening to workers speak through this research and through developments overseas as well, where a variety of call centre practices have shown what constitutes successful and unsuccessful employment strategies in call centre work.

  • 2002 Volume 4 Issue 2
  • 2002 Volume 4 Issue 1
  • 2001 Volume 3 Issue 2
    • Corporate Environmental Reporting by Markus J. Milne, David L. Owen and Carol A. Tilt

      By international standards, New Zealand's record of corporate environmental reporting is dismal. The 1996 triennial KPMG survey on the subject placed New Zealand last of 13 OECD countries. New Zealand does not even feature in the latest 1999 survey. This article suggests how New Zealand companies can improve their environmental reporting record.

    • The Knowledge Wave by Michael Porter, David Teece, Sally Shelton-Colby, Don Brash, John Hood and Helen Clark.

      This special feature includes excerpts from the Catching the Knowledge Wave Conference which was charged with helping to create a national strategy to enable New Zealand's transition to a competitive knowledge society. Featured speeches include those by Michael Porter, David Teece, Sally Shelton-Colby, Don Brash, John Hood and Helen Clark.

    • Perishable goods and a boiled frog by K.A. Van Peursem, S. Lee and N.P. Harnisch Rose

      This small-business case study illustrates the strategic management metaphor of the "boiled frog". The boiled frog represents the business that fails to respond appropriately to discontinuities in the business environment. This article looks at a small business‚ financial history and how a boiled frog crisis can occur. It examines the opinions of the business owners, employees, customers and suppliers and concludes with implications for small-business managers.

    • Turning a sober eye to southern comfort by Jonathan Nicholas Gill

      Has the law adequately recognised the compromise reached between the parties to a letter of comfort? The author argues that letters of comfort cannot establish contractual obligation and that within a commercial context, such letters will rarely establish liability pursuant to the doctrine of estoppel. In non-commercial circumstances, however, legal liability pursuant to estoppel can be established. Legal liability can also be established under Section 9 of the Fair Trading Act 1986. Nevertheless, the majority of letters of comfort fall into the realm of non-binding statement of present intention.

    • Managing Business Operations by David Robb

      Opportunities abound to improve the management and performance of business operations in New Zealand. An array of poor and superior examples of operations management is presented, along with a multi-stage framework, and tools and tips for improvement based on extensive consulting work. In wrestling with and applying these concepts, managers should be able to make significant performance gains in a host of areas - from supply-chain management to service quality.

    • Improving the performance of New Zealand's SME's by Patricia Corner

      This article draws on international research to develop a framework of straightforward measures that can help small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) succeed. The framework includes both financial and non-financial measures that can help SMEs gain greater access to finance, improve planning and better identify competitive advantage. The framework is tested in the national context through case studies of New Zealand SMEs.

  • 2001 Volume 3 Issue 1
    • Taxable Bonus Issues by Hamish Anderson, Steven Cahan and Lawrence Rose

      Imputation credits are beneficial to shareholders only once they have been distributed. Typically, this is achieved by paying cash dividends. Companies that retain a large proportion of after-tax earnings for reinvestment, such as growth companies, will accumulate imputation credits. Shareholders can still benefit from accumulated tax credits if the company issues a taxable bonus issue. However, a change in the highest marginal tax rate to 39 per cent may eliminate taxable bonus issues as a key tool for delivering valuable imputation credits to shareholders.

    • Risk and Uncertainty in efficient capital markets Or why is the Nasdaq so risky? by Charles Corrado

      Capital markets perform the task of pricing the future using current information. The task is especially daunting for companies with prospects for high growth far into the future. In an efficient capital market, security prices fluctuate randomly with the arrival of news. News about future growth can have tremendous leverage on share values since even small changes in expected growth can generate large changes in share values. This is especially the case for new economy technology companies with the greatest prospects for future growth.

    • Postgraduate student essay:The influence of brands in the fashion purchasing process by Guy W. Mullarkey

      Six key factors of fashion brand choice -- rational, product, cognitive, environmental, peer and cultural -- are identified through a series of focus groups. Understanding the interplay of these factors in conjunction with the purchase occasion allows fashion retailers increased understanding of how consumers select fashion brands and how store brands can influence the location and likelihood of purchase. Implications of the research are presented for both fashion retailers and general retailers who rely on strong brands for their bottom-line profits.

    • Executive Comment: Passion and purpose in business by Dick Brunton, Chief Executive Officer, Colmar Brunton Research

      Six key factors of fashion brand choice -- rational, product, cognitive, environmental, peer and cultural -- are identified through a series of focus groups. Understanding the interplay of these factors in conjunction with the purchase occasion allows fashion retailers increased understanding of how consumers select fashion brands and how store brands can influence the location and likelihood of purchase. Implications of the research are presented for both fashion retailers and general retailers who rely on strong brands for their bottom-line profits.

    • Digital Commerce by Ananth Srinivasan

      The past few months have seen a build-up of scepticism about digital commerce and its viability as a sustainable model for doing business. Despite a short-term adjustment, the digital (or dot-com) phenomenon is here to stay. Forecasts of the level of digital commerce activity clearly show a rapid rate of growth worldwide and in the Asia-Pacific region over the foreseeable future. It is important to take a long-term perspective on the phenomenon of digital commerce to fully appreciate and prepare for a transformed economic future.

    • The Knowledge Economy by Martin Richardson

      It is too soon to find convincing evidence of a "New Economy" even in the United States, let alone New Zealand. The author is sceptical about increasing calls for the government to guide economic and business development through hands-on involvement in technological sectors. Knowledge economy proponents suggest that if a business is not knowledge-based it is on a fast track to oblivion and that government economic policy must be geared to leading business down the knowledge economy path. Busy managers should take this with a grain of salt.

  • 2000 Volume 2 Issue 2
    • How to make lightning strike by Marie Wilson

      Although New Zealand has been a straggler in encouraging entrepreneurial activity, many other countries appear to be benefiting from economic development programmes spanning the past two decades or more. Learning how other countries have gone about establishing positive ground for entrepreneurial activity is thus long overdue. This article looks at several economic development initiatives in the United States for insights that might help.

    • The emperor's new clothes by Darl Kolb and Adas Wolk

      Finding the right approach to management has become a never-ending quest for many managers. Feeding the confusion is the fact that the “latest and greatest” management tools and techniques inevitably go in and out of fashion. This article explores management techniques as fashion and presents empirical findings from a survey of New Zealand managers as to which information sources most influence their choice of management tools and techniques. A model of management fashion selection is also presented.

    • Why customers leave - or decide not to leave - their bank by Mark Colgate and Melissa Norris

      Service failure - when something goes wrong for a customer - has been attracting much attention. This paper presents a comprehensive model of the entire service failure process. Drawing on interviews with business banking customers, who have recently encountered a service failure, it shows that service recovery is only one of the reasons a customer may stay or leave a service organisation after a service failure.

    • Building Business Co-operation in New ZealandBuilding Business Co-operation in New Zealand by Martin Perry

      Small developed countries face particular challenges in maintaining their economic viability, including high exposure to international trade and barriers to participating in high-tech industries. Nordic economies have succeeded better than New Zealand in building strong industries and maintaining high standards of living. This success has partly resulted from “shared trust” which, in essence, means that the default relationship between businesses is co-operative. The author raises doubts that shared trust exists in New Zealand.

    • Theory of constraints and activity-based costing by Annabella Fu

      Can two apparently conflicting approaches - the Theory of Constraints and activity-based costing - be combined to improve the financial and operational performance of businesses? The Theory of Constraints centres on improving throughput by focusing on bottlenecks or constraints in a system, and denies the need for product cost information. But studies show that refinement of product cost, particularly using activity-based costing, can improve the quality of decision making.

    • Executive Comment: Biotechnology New Zealand by David Irving

      Imagine New Zealand as a company. Every New Zealander is a shareholder. Can we, as shareholders, easily agree on a vision? In this article, David Irving outlines his vision of an entrepreneurial country where achievements are encouraged, recognised and rewarded. The prosperous and successful are not the few, but the many. Economic prosperity contributes to social prosperity.

  • 2000 Volume 2 Issue 1
    • Creating Effective Multicultural Teams by David C. Thomas, Elizabeth C. Ravlin and David Barry

      Managers around the world have embraced the notion of work teams as a means of increasing organisational productivity. The implementation of teams is complex, made even more so when the workforce is comprised of people from different cultures.

    • Partnerships and Alliances within APEC by Nelson An-Ping Chang

      International joint ventures and cooperation are becoming the norm rather than the exception. Companies must change their national or even regional mindsets in order to go global. The author believes that, given the fast evolution of technologies, much tougher consumer demands, and huge capitalisation requirements for future global firms, the time has come for us to develop true partnerships and alliances within the APEC region.

    • Managing Out of Bounds by Robert Davis and Margo Buchanan-Oliver

      Electronic commerce is revolutionising business practice. Firms are forming long-term strategic alliances on the basis of electronic commerce service delivery to their customers. But how should these alliances be managed? How can a firm manage its electronic commerce service offerings when essential parts of the service lie outside of the organisation’s boundaries? In this article, the authors suggest a new "dual approach" that requires integration of both the traditional, functional, management processes AND the strategic customer-oriented implications of the allied service brand.

    • Executive Comment: Biotechnology New Zealand by Jim Watson

      There is little doubt that the biotechnology revolution will be just as important and far-reaching as the information technology revolution. In this thought-provoking article, Dr Jim Watson suggests that the universities, new small entrepreneurial companies like Genesis, and the business community in general should be working together to redefine the brain:business boundaries and foster new ways of combining scientific and commercial skills. He argues that we should be actively promoting opportunities growing from information technology and biology to create the largest business innovation centre in Australasia.

    • Learning in the Manufacturing Sector by Barbara Simpson, Judy McGregor, David Tweed Rainer Seidel, Darl Kolb, and John Henley-King

      Every New Zealander knows about Kiwi ingenuity and the pivotal role that No. 8 wire plays in the national expression of our creativity. But in these days of market globalisation and technology proliferation, is Kiwi ingenuity enough? More specifically, is there a secret ingredient that allows small New Zealand manufacturers to compete and succeed internationally? In answering this question, the authors suggest that there are four distinct types of knowledge that interact to provide a balanced view of the developmental needs of highly competitive manufacturing companies.

    • The Great IT Race by Rebecca Watson

      New Zealand is one of many countries racing to develop new globally competitive technology industries. But we are doing only moderately well in this vitally important race. Countries such as Finland are performing much better and have developed highly successful information technology (IT) industries. This paper compares Finland and New Zealand to uncover those factors that impact on the development of a successful IT industry. The author identifies three major factors: the extent of government IT promotion, the level of private sector investment in research and development, and the existence of an education system that produces IT literate graduates.

  • 1999 Volume 1 Issue 1
    • The Death Of The Company Career by Kerr Inkson

      Restructuring and downsizing continue apace. One casualty of the process is the company career. As employees realise that the old long-term relationships they had with their companies can no longer be relied on, they pursue employability rather than employment, and inter-company mobility becomes the norm. What are the implications for companies seeking a stable core, for human resource management looking for a committed workforce? The author suggests that our conventional views of organizations, jobs, careers, and human resources need to be turned on their heads as we consider enterprise in a quite new way

    • Promoting Competition For Business In Apec by Kerrin Vautier

      The Asian crisis has spotlighted efficiently functioning markets as a central policy issue. This paper discusses some key issues that are emerging as ‘competition policy’ becomes more prominent on international agendas. The paper also introduces some documented business, research and government perspectives on the competition policy area in APEC. These issues and perspectives are highly relevant to the role of competition and to the future conditions facing business in globalising markets.

    • Customer Satisfaction And Loyalty by Mark Colgate

      Bank customer satisfaction is lower in New Zealand than in the US. What drives bank customer satisfaction and loyalty? How important are relationships in the New Zealand banking industry? How well do customers feel their complaints are handled? And why do they leave banks? The author found that price, relationships and value are all areas that customers consider important. New Zealand’s main banks need to improve their performance in those areas. The author also found that banks undertake little defection management - taking action when customers quit. This is another opportunity for banks to improve customer perceptions of their service. Mark Colgate’s recommendations will be useful not only to managers in the banking industry, but also to managers in other service industries.

    • Overseas Experience: Increasing Individual And National Competitiveness by Kerr Inkson, David Thomas and Sean Barry

      In New Zealand, everyone knows that "OE" means overseas experience. Every year thousands of young New Zealanders go overseas for a year or more of travel and work. The tendency in New Zealand is to regard OE as a rite of passage for the young. But it can also be viewed as a source of competitive advantage for the travellers and their employers - indeed for the nation as a whole. The authors have studied the OE experiences of many New Zealanders and explain how this form of relatively unstructured travel can best be turned to the advantage of all parties.

    • Postgraduate Student Essay: The Impact of Trade Credit on Business Operations by Jyoti Kalyanji

      Trade credit is the most important source of short-term finance for businesses – in many countries accounts payable is larger than bank debts. It is common practice in New Zealand for business concerns to exchange goods and services on "20th of the following month" credit terms. The financial advantage in ordering on the first of a month and receiving 50 days free credit appears obvious, but what is the true impact on business operations? This paper provides a brief overview of trade credit and trade credit terms, and evaluates the common New Zealand practice of "20th of the following month" trade credit terms. It is suggested that this practice has a remarkable impact on a business' operations and, ultimately, profitability. A number of alternative approaches for alleviating this impact are discussed.

    • Executive Comment: How can New Zealand win the Globalisation Game? by Hugh Fletcher

      In the 15 years since the Lange Government was elected and New Zealand opened up to the forces of globalisation, we have performed dismally, both economically and socially. Why is this the case? In this thought-provoking article, Hugh Fletcher suggests that we need a more balanced contest of ideas as to how New Zealand can prosper in a globalised economy. We must play the game substantially differently from the way we have been playing it for the last 15 years.

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